Appraisal of ANN and ANFIS for Predicting Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) in the Ionosphere for GPS Observations

  • I. Yakubu
  • Y. Y Ziggah
  • D. Asafo-Adjei
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System, Vertical Total Electron


Positional accuracy in the usage of GPS receiver is one of the major challenges in GPS observations. The propagation of the GPS signals are interfered by free electrons which are the massive particles in the ionosphere region and results in delays in the transmission of signals to the Earth. Therefore, the total electron content is a key parameter in mitigating ionospheric effects on GPS receivers. Many researchers have therefore proposed various models and methods for predicting the total electron content along the signal path. This paper focuses on the use of two different models for predicting the Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC). Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) algorithms have been developed for the prediction of VTEC in the ionosphere.  The developed ANN and ANFIS model gave Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 1.953 and 1.190 respectively.  From the results it can be stated that the ANFIS is more suitable tool for the prediction of VTEC.